Mukherjee, A. and Banerjee, M. and Basu, S. and Nambissan, P.M.G. and Pal, M. (2013) Gadolinium substitution induced defect restructuring in multiferroic BiFeO3: case study by positron annihilation spectroscopy. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 46 (49). p. 495309.

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## Abstract

Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) comprising of the measurements of positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectra has been carried out to understand and monitor the evolution of the vacancy-type defects arising from the ionic deficiencies at lattice points of the multiferroic perovskite bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) doped with 1, 5 and 10 at% gadolinium (Gd3+) ions. Negatively charged defects in the form of Bi3+ monovacancies $(V_{{\rm Bi}}^{3-} )$ were present in the undoped nanocrystallites, which strongly trapped positrons. During the successive doping by Gd3+ ions, the positron trapping efficiency decreased while the doped ions combined with the vacancies to form complexes, which became neutral. A fraction of the positrons got annihilated at the crystallite surfaces too, being evident from the very large positron lifetimes obtained and confirming the nano-size-specific characteristics of the samples. Further, the intercrystallite regions provided favourable sites for orthopositronium formation, although in minute concentrations. The dopant ion-complex formation was also depicted clearly by the defect characteristic S–W plot. Also, the large change of electrical resistivity with Gd concentration has been explained nicely by invoking the defect information from the PAS study. The study has demonstrated the usefulness of an excellent method of defect identification in such a novel material system, which is vital information for exploiting them for further technological applications.

Item Type: Article Materials Dr. Sarita Ghosh 21 Sep 2016 09:09 21 Sep 2016 09:09 http://cmeri.csircentral.net/id/eprint/294