Chatterjee, Manosree and Jaiswal, Namita and Hens, Abhiram and Mahata, Nibedita and Chanda, Nripen (2020) Development of 6-Thioguanine conjugated PLGA nanoparticles through thioester bond formation: Benefits of electrospray mediated drug encapsulation and sustained release in cancer therapeutic applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 114 (111029).

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Polymeric nanoparticle-based successful delivery of hydrophobic drugs is highly desirable for its controlled and sustained release at the disease site, which is a challenge with the current synthesis methods. In the present study, an electrospray mediated facile one-step synthesis approach is explored in which a solution mixture of a hydrophobic drug, 6-thioguanine (Tg) and a biocompatible FDA approved polymer, Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is injected in an applied electric field of suitable intensity to prepare drug encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles, PLGA-Tg with high yield. In order to explore the effect of external electric field on Tg loading and delivery applications, the nanoparticles are characterized using EDX, AFM, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, Raman, fluorescence, and mass spectroscopy techniques. The characterization studies indicate that the electric field mediated synthesis exhibits spherical nanoparticles with a homogenous core size distribution of ~60 nm, high encapsulation (~97.22%) and stable conjugation of Tg (via thioester linkages) with PLGA molecules in the presence of the applied electric field. The kinetic study demonstrates the ‘anomalous diffusion’ (non-Fickian diffusion) release mechanism in which Tg escapes from PLGA matrix with a slow, but steady diffusion rate and the sustained drug release profile continues for 60 days. To check the biological activity of the encapsulated Tg, in-vitro cell studies of the PLGA-Tg are performed on HeLa cells. The MTT assay shows significant cell death after 48 h of treatment, and the cellular internalization of the drug-loaded nanoparticles occurs through pinocytosis mediated uptake, which is established by the AFM analysis. The Raman and mass spectroscopy studies suggest that the PLGA-Tg nanoparticles are rapidly hydrolyzed inside cell cytoplasm to release Tg which initiates apoptosis-mediated cell death confirmed by as DNA fragmentation and membrane blebbing studies. The results clearly emphasize the benefits of electrospray based synthesis of polymeric nanodrug formulation through the formation of chemical bonds between polymer and drug molecules that could be easily implemented in the design and development of an effective nanotherapeutic platform with no typical ‘burst effect,’ prolonged release profile, and significant toxicity to the cancer cells.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Nano-technology
Depositing User: Dr. Arup Kr. Nandi
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2021 07:36
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2021 07:36

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